Year 2010 has been established by the United Nations as International Year of Biodiversity. The main goal is protection and conservation of biodiversity across all continents. The major causes of species endangerment are: habitat loss, pollution of environment, over-exploitation, diseases and climate changes. This book encompasses information concerning endangered and extinct animals and captures solutions for protection and restoration of animals based on major advances that have occurred in both science and technology. Protection of domestic breeds and wild animal species is of equal importance. Scientists with long-refined expertise present the latest information concerning studies of both endangered and extinct animals at molecular level and discuss applications of biotechnology of reproduction for protection of threatened and restoration of extinct animal species.